Advanced industrial societies—the United States, Japan, the countries of Western Europe—are becoming more dependent on foreign scientists, engineers, and computer programmers to propel their economic growth. And emerging economies—such as India, China, and South Africa—are increasingly recognizing the need to stem the outflow of their own domestic professionals. The International Migration of the Highly Skilled examines the scale and significance of these international flows of highly skilled workers.
The seventeen contributors political scientists, sociologists, economists, and anthropologists bring to the field a broad range of perspectives on the global market for high-skilled labor. They examine the legal history of skilled immigration to the United States and Canada, the "brain drain" phenomenon, immigrant entrepreneurship and immigrant niches, and recent changes in immigration policy making.
The book includes several case studies analyzing the experiences of both sending and receiving countries. The authors offer a timely foundation for current and future policy discussions concerning high-skill migration. Despite the current economic downturn in the United States and other receiving countries, knowledge-intensive sectors of their economies will continue to grow and will continue to depend on the contributions of skilled migrants. Advanced Search. Center for Comparative Immigration Studies Anthologies.
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Individual Preferences over High-Skilled Immigration in the United States
Generally, however, individual skilled workers are more valued to a given company than individual non-skilled workers, as skilled workers tend to be more difficult to replace. As a result, skilled workers tend to demand more in the way of financial compensation because of their efforts. According to Greenspan, corporate managers are willing to bid up pay packages to acquire skilled workers as they identify the lack of skilled labor as one of today's greatest problems.
Education can be received in a variety of manners, and is acknowledged through various means.
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Below is a sampling of educational conventions. In American industry , there has been a change in the concentration of skilled workers from the areas of past economic might e. Due to globalization , regional shortages of skilled workers, migration, outsourcing , and other factors, the methods of procuring skilled workers has changed in recent years.
All countries are in a process of change and transition which makes possible the migration of skilled workers from places of lower to higher opportunities in training and better working conditions.
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Although materialistic rewards play a role in skilled workers migration, it is the lack of security, opportunity and suitable rewards in the homeland that fundamentally makes this massive movement of people possible, going from places of lesser development to affluent societies.
Educational poaching is a concern among the developing nations, with the richest nations benefiting from educational resources of the nations who can least afford to lose the most productive career years of their highly skilled professionals. This factor disincentives investment in education in both the developing and developed world, as foreign students and foreign workers limit opportunities for citizens in the receiving countries.
The profiles of candidates in the pool are ranked under a Comprehensive Ranking System. Under Apartheid , the development of skilled workers was concentrated on the white inhabitants but after the socio-political upheaval of the s, these same skilled workers are emigrating, a highly sensitive subject in contemporary South African Society. The media in South Africa has increasingly covered the "brain drain" in the s. Starting in , when a democratically elected government took control of the reins of power, official South African statistics show a greater emigration of skilled workers.
The validity of this data has been questioned. The key reasons for introducing this policy are an ageing population in general and an increasing shortage of skilled workers in many member states. The demand for Information Technology IT skilled workers is on the rise.
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This has led to a lessening of the immigration restrictions prevalent in various countries. Migration of skilled workers from Asia to the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia is common, specially among students and the temporary migration of IT skilled workers. Data shows, however, that the migration of skilled workers from Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and France to the United States is only temporary and is more like a brain exchange than a "brain drain".
Brain Drain literature focuses mainly on the high cost of skilled migration for the homeland or sending country. This loss can be partly offset if the migration is only temporary. Developing countries invest heavily in education. However, temporary migration can generate a substantial remittance of capital flow to the homeland. This flow of capital plus the additional knowledge gained would do more than compensate the homeland for the investment made originally in educating the skilled worker.
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The key to temporary migration is a change in the trade and immigration policies of the receiving country and a stepping-up of the demands of the sending country for the return migration of skilled workers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues.
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Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article's lead section contains information that is not included elsewhere in the article. If the information is appropriate for the lead of the article, this information should also be included in the body of the article.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events.
Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. See also: Brain drain.
Wiebe Self-Rule , pp. Friedman The World Is Flat , p.
Related High-Skilled Immigration in a Global Labor Market
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